Soloiu, V., Gaubert, R., Muinos, M., Moncada, J. et al., "Performance of an Indirect Injected Engine Operated with ULSD#2 Blended with Fischer-Tropsch Synthetic Kerosene," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1283, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1283.
This study investigates the use of a natural gas derived fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) paraffinic kerosene, in both it’s neat form and blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD#2), in a naturally aspirated indirect injected engine. A blend of a mass ratio with 20% of the F-T fuel and 80% ULSD#2 was studied for its combustion characteristics, emissions, and efficiency compared to conventional ULSD#2 at a constant speed of 2400 RPM and operating at IMEP range from 4.5 to 6.5 bar. The F-T blend produced ignition delays 17% shorter than ULSD#2 resulting in slightly lower peak apparent heat release rates (AHRR) along with decreased peak combustion temperatures, by up to 50°C. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions of the F-T blend decreased by 4.0% at 4.5 bar IMEP and at negligible amounts at 6.5 bar IMEP. The F-T blend decreased soot significantly at 5.4 bar IMEP by 40%. Efficiencies of the F-T blend were similar to ULSD#2. Mechanical Efficiency increased with load from 45% to 64%, and thermal efficiency reached 42% for the blended fuel and 46% for ULSD at 4.5 IMEP. The results prove that the F-T fuel is a potential future alternative to ULSD#2.