Mishra, S., Gummadi, N., Bozzi, L., Vaughn, N. et al., "Computational Aeroacoustics of Mufflers for Exhaust Air Rush Prediction and Experimental Validation," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1311, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1311.
Air rush noise is exhaust gas driven flow-induced noise in the frequency range of 500-6500 Hz. It is essential to understand the flow physics of exhaust gases within the mufflers in order to identify any counter measures that can attenuate this error state. This study is aimed at predicting the flow physics and air rush noise of exhaust mufflers in the aforementioned frequency range at a typical exhaust flow rate and temperature. The study is performed on two different muffler designs which show a significant air rush noise level difference when tested on the vehicle. The transient computational study was performed using DES with 2nd order spatial discretization and 2nd order implicit scheme for temporal discretization in StarCCM+. To compare with test data, a special flow test stand is designed so that all high and low frequency contents emanating from the engine are attenuated before the flow enters the test part. Also, the flow pulsation is dampened before entering the test parts to agree closely with CFD boundary conditions. The predicted air rush noise from CFD study exhibited good agreement with the experimental results.