Zou, Z., Willoughby, D., Scott, M., El-Essawi, M. et al., "A Geometrically Exact Isogeometric Blended Shell: Formulation, Benchmarking, and Automotive Application," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 10(2):2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1329.
We present a geometrically exact isogeometric blended shell formulation. In other words, all geometric quantities appearing in the blended theory are evaluated exactly and no approximations are employed. The blended approach allows higher-order shell theories, like Kirchhoff-Love, to be combined with Reissner-Mindlin shell formulations, which have rotational degrees of freedom. In this way, rotations can be employed only where needed to simplify shell modeling such as at kinks and intersections. Away from these regions shear locking free formulations can be employed to improve robustness, accuracy, and efficiency. We compare our approach to standard shell elements commonly used in industry on several benchmarks to explore the behavior of the element. We then model an inner car hood to demonstrate our ability to handle complex CAD geometry in a simple manner without geometry cleanup and mesh generation steps. This shell element forms the basis of the newly developed Isogeometrx structural solver.