Bortles, W., Hessel, D., and Neale, W., "Application of 3D Visualization in Modeling Wheel Stud Contact Patterns with Rotating and Stationary Surfaces," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1414, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1414.
When a vehicle with protruding wheel studs makes contact with another vehicle or object in a sideswipe configuration, the tire sidewall, rim and wheel studs of that vehicle can deposit distinct geometrical damage patterns onto the surfaces it contacts. Prior research has demonstrated how relative speeds between the two vehicles or surfaces can be calculated through analysis of the distinct contact patterns. This paper presents a methodology for performing this analysis by visually modeling the interaction between wheel studs and various surfaces, and presents a method for automating the calculations of relative speed between vehicles. This methodology also augments prior research by demonstrating how the visual modeling and simulation of the wheel stud contact can extend to almost any surface interaction that may not have any previous prior published tests, or test methods that would be difficult to setup in real life. Specifically, the modeling and simulating of wheel stud contact is evaluated on more complex geometry, stationary objects, and the sidewall of another rotating tire.