In this paper, a novel method based on the sideslip angle-yaw rate phase plane is proposed to establish the vehicle stability criterion for vehicle stability control. Firstly, a nonlinear two degrees of freedom vehicle dynamic model is established by adopting the Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model. Then, an equilibrium point solution approach is introduced. Next, according to the model in MATLAB/Simulink, the sideslip angle-yaw rate phase plane is gained. Emphatically, the effects of different driving conditions (the front wheel angle, road friction coefficient and vehicle speed) on the stability boundary on the phase plane are analyzed. According to the topological analysis based on the equilibrium point, the stability regions under different driving conditions can be divided into two types: curve type and diamond type. The judgment method for the type of stability region to which the phase plane corresponds is put forward according to real-time driving conditions. In addition, the descriptive function of the stability boundary is designed. Finally, the effects of different driving conditions on the stability boundary’s relevant design parameters are investigated, a dataset of the stability region is set up to obtain the vehicle stability boundary during the stability control. This research provides a theoretical basis for the intervention of the stability control system algorithm.