Weiss, D. and Rios, O., "Low Density and Temperature Tolerant Alloys for Automotive Applications," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-1666, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1666.
Aluminum alloys containing cerium have excellent castability and retain a substantial fraction of their room temperature strength at temperatures of 200°C and above. High temperature strength is maintained through a thermodynamically trapped, high surface energy intermetallic. Dynamic load partitioning between the aluminum and the intermetallic increases mechanical response. Complex castings have been produced in both permanent mold and sand castings. This versatile alloy system, using an abundant and inexpensive co-product of rare earth mining, is suitable for parts that need to maintain good properties when exposed to temperatures between 200 and 315°C.