Design of a 5.9 GHz high directivity planar antenna using Topology optimization for V2V Applications

Paper #:
  • 2017-01-1691

Published:
  • 2017-03-28
Abstract:
A simple low profile high directivity antenna is designed to operate at 5.9 GHz for Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications to ensure connectivity in different propagation channels. Patch antennas are still an ongoing topic of interest due to their advantages: low profile, low cost and ease of fabrication. One of the disadvantages of patch antenna is low directivity which results in low range performance. There are several techniques to improve the directivity of the patch antenna; among these, the use of stacked patch, the use of fractal boundary, incorporating metamaterials in the substrate, and optimizing the shape of the patch. In this paper, we introduce an efficient and novel way to improve the directivity of patch antenna using topology optimization and design of experiments (DoE). Topology optimization is a mathematical approach that optimizes material layout within a given design space, for a given set of constrains to obtain the performance goals. The common way of carrying out topology optimization is through the material distribution approach, in which the design domain is divided into small elements. The patch is divided in 12×12 square cells. To reduce the optimization time, DoE (Altair HyperStudy 14.0) is incorporated in the design process. DoE can be defined as a test or a series of tests in which purposeful changes are made to the design variables of a system, here the antenna, so that the reasons for changes in the output response, directivity, can be identified and observed. A possibility of the antenna miniaturization while maintaining the optimized directivity will also be presented as a further investigation of proposed method.
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