Locke, J. and Schmidt, S., "A Low Profile Loop Antenna Design for Automotive Applications," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Electron. Electr. Syst. 10(1):265-274, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-1696.
This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. The antenna design combines a resonant Alford loop with folded dipole elements to allow for efficiencies that are higher than electrically small loop antenna designs. The Alford loop provides the horizontal polarization and omnidirectional pattern coverage on the horizon which is desired for remote keyless entry and other narrowband automotive applications. With the use of folded dipole elements, the design allows for low profile mounting desired by automotive styling.