In modern engine design, downsizing and reducing weight while still providing an increased amount of power has been a general trend in the past decades. Traditionally, an engine design with superior NVH performance usually comes with a heavier, thus sturdier structure. Therefore, modern engine design requires that NVH be considered in the very early design stage to avoid modifications of engine structure at the last minute, when very few changes can be made. NVH design optimization of engine components has become more practical due to the development of computer software and hardware. However, there is still a need for smarter algorithms to draw a direct relationship between the design and the radiated sound power. At the moment, techniques based on modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) have gained popularity in design optimization for its performance in sound pressure prediction. Since MATVs are derived based on structural modes, they are not independent with respect to radiated sound power. Acoustic radiation modes are a set of velocity distributions on the structure’s surface that contribute to the radiated sound power independently. As a result, it is beneficial to describe structural vibration in terms of acoustic radiation modes, in order to understand which velocity distribution contributes the most to the radiated sound power. Measures can then be taken to modify the identified vibration patterns to reduce their magnitudes, which will in turn result in an unequivocal reduction of the radiated sound power. A workflow based on multibody dynamic simulation and acoustic radiation modes to optimize an engine gear cover design is demonstrated in this paper.