Pucilowski, M., Jangi, M., Shamun, S., Tuner, M. et al., "The Effect of Injection Pressure on the NOx Emission Rates in a Heavy-Duty DICI Engine Running on Methanol.," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2194, 2017.
Heavy-duty direct injection compression ignition (DICI) engine running on methanol is studied at a high compression ratio (CR) of 27. The fuel is injected with a common-rail injector close to the top-dead-center (TDC) with two injection pressures of 800 bar and 1600 bar. Numerical simulations using Reynold Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS), Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT), and Well-Stirred-Reactor (WSR) models are employed to investigate local conditions of injection and combustion process to identify the mechanism behind the trend of increasing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions at higher injection pressures found in the experiments. It is shown that the numerical simulations successfully replicate the change of ignition delay time and capture variation of NOx emissions. The fuel vapor penetration length before the onset of ignition has been significantly altered at a higher injection pressure, which had an important impact on the high temperature zone and thus on the increased formation rate of NOx emissions.