Lubricity is considered as one of the fundamental quality parameters of diesel fuel since several diesel engine parts, such as pumps and injectors, are lubricated by the fuel itself. The dramatic reduction of sulfur content in diesel fuel leads to the elimination of heterocyclic compounds that are beneficial to lubricity. As a result especially in ultra low sulfur diesel the lubricating efficiency has to be fulfilled by the contained hydrocarbons. Therefore, it is very interesting to know to what extend each type of hydrocarbon contributes to diesel fuel lubricity when neither FAME nor a lubricity improver is employed. The aim of this study is to investigate the lubricity of hydrocarbons that constitute components of petroleum diesel fuel. A number of typical hydrocarbon compounds were selected as representatives of the group types of paraffins, olefins, cycloparaffins and aromatics, similar to those that are present in diesel fuel. The lubricity of these substances was examined in a High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) apparatus according to the ISO 12156-1 standard method. Thereafter, a series of diesel surrogate fuel were synthesized from the above substances based on literature data for diesel fuel composition and on the previously obtained results. These model fuels were assessed regarding their lubricating performance in order to evaluate how each individual component can affect the lubricity of the final fuel. In addition to this, commercial, additive-free diesel fuel samples were analyzed per the previously mentioned procedure and were used as reference fuels for a comparative assessment.