Knorsch, T., Mamaikin, D., Leick, P., Rogler, P. et al., "Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2302, 2017.
The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements.In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging. Correlation among these three methods is used to classify the benefits and limitations of each measurement technique. The combination of these conceptually different measurement approaches provides a better insight into the complex phenomena of spray penetration and mixture preparation along with near-nozzle effects such as tip wetting in order to optimize future HDEV injector generations.