With increasingly severe atmospheric environmental problems, diesel car emissions have attracted broad attention for its main contribution to air pollutant. Alternative fuels become a hot research point in vehicle for rapidly consuming of fossil oil resources. Biodiesel and GTL (gas to liquid) fuels are two typical alternative fuels for diesel fuel. Low blend ratio (≤10%) biodiesel and GTL fuels can be used in a diesel engine without modifying the engine’s configuration. It is important to investigate the difference of low blend ratio biodiesel and GTL fuels used in the same diesel car and to find the optimum one. Gaseous and particle emissions from a light duty diesel car with B10 (10% biodiesel from cooking oil +90% diesel, v/v) and G10 (10% GTL fuel +90% diesel, v/v) was investigated. It was equipped with high pressure common rail system, cooled EGR and DOC and was tested on a chassis dynamometer under NEDC mode. Results show that, compared to diesel fuel: (1) B10 and G10 can both reduce the CO emission by 51.2% and 52.3% respectively during the NEDC cycle. The first urban driving cycle (UDC-1) has higher CO emission since low DOC efficiency in low exhaust temperature. (2) B10 fuel increases the specific HC emission by the proportion of 10.5% and G10 fuel decreases that by the proportion of 46.9% during whole NEDC cycle. (3) NOx emission increases with the use of B10 by 14.2% and decreases with the use of G10 by 6.8%. (4) The relationship of CO2 emissions of three kinds of fuels is B10 > Diesel > G10 for distinct difference in low heating value. (5) Particle number concentration in UDC-1 is higher than that in the rest three UDC cycles. B10 and G10 both can reduce the nucleation mode particle number emission and specific particle number emission and G10 has lower particle number emission.