Huang, D., Zhou, X., Qian, P., Wen, C. et al., "Seal Failure Analysis Method of Wheel Bearing," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 10(3):817-824, 2017.
The seal structure and key parameters of wheel bearing were introduced. Research on sealing failure diagnosis, abrasive scratch analysis, residual interference, and abrasion reconstruction was carried out for a typical seal structure. Based on these methods of scientific failure analysis, eight causes of seal failure were summarized systematically, which were important for the guidance of seal design and failure analysis of wheel bearings.