Gomes, M., Santos, I., Couto, C., Mucsi, C. et al., "P/M Valve Seat Inserts: Air Quenching and Characterization," SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-5014, 2017.
This work consists of evaluating the influence of heat treatment on sintered valve seat insert (VSI) obtained with two different high-speed steels powders and one tool steel: AISI M3:2, AISI M2 and AISI D2, respectively. The high-speed / tool steel powders were mixed with iron powders and additives such as manganese sulphide, zinc stearate, graphite and niobium carbide. All the high-speed / tool steel powders had its particle size distribution and morphology analyzed. The heat treatment of the VSI consisted of air quenching followed by double tempering it in seven different and equidistant temperatures, ranging from 100 °C until 700 °C. A data acquisition system with a thermocouple type k attached to the samples was used to determine the air-quenching cooling rate. The mechanical and physical properties measurements were carried out, i.e., apparent density, apparent hardness and crush radial strength. The microstructural evaluation consisted of etching the VSI and then analyzing it using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the VSI obtained with the AISI M3:2 and M2 high-speed steel powders mixtures showed the best results regarding its apparent hardness and crush radial strength after air quenching and double tempering it at 600 °C.