Karakitsios, I., Karfopoulos, E., Madjarov, N., Bustillo, A. et al., "An Integrated Approach for Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles by Wireless Power Transfer - Lessons Learned from Real-Life Implementation," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 6(1):15-24, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-01-9076.
The aim of this paper is to introduce a complete fast dynamic inductive charging infrastructure from the back-office system (EV management system) up to the Electric Vehicle (EV) (inductive power transfer module, positioning mechanism, electric vehicle modifications) and the EV user (User interface). Moreover, in order to assess the impact of the additional demand of inductive charging on the grid operation, an estimation of the 24-hour power profile of dynamic inductive charging is presented considering, apart from the road traffic, the probability of the need for fast charging, as well as the specifications of the proposed solution. In addition, an energy management system is presented enabling the management of the operation of the inductive charging infrastructure, the interaction with the EV users and the provision of demand response services to different stakeholders. The proposed dynamic inductive charging approach has been demonstrated within a real urban environment in order to provide useful insights regarding the experience gained from a real-field trial. The relevant practical conclusions are also discussed in this paper. Finally, a cost/benefit analysis, according to the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) principles, is performed in order to assess the economic viability of the proposed solution.