In-cylinder temperature measurements are vital for the validation of gasoline engine modelling and useful in their own right for explaining differences in engine performance. The underlying chemical reactions in combustion are highly sensitive to temperature and affect emissions of both NOx and particulate matter. The two techniques described here are complementary, and can be used for insights into the quality of mixture preparation and comparing the in-cylinder temperatures of port fuel injection (PFI) compared with gasoline direct injection (GDI), so as to explain the differences in volumetric efficiency. The influence of fuel composition on in-cylinder mixture temperatures can also be resolved. Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) provides point temperature measurements with a pressure dependent precision in the range 0.1 to 1.0%; as the pressure increases the precision improves. This allows resolution of temperature differences between PFI and GDI mixture preparation. The well-established method of Two-Colour Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence, TC-PLIF allows 2-D temperature distributions to be determined from measurement of fluorescence signals at two different wavelengths. However, the challenge with PLIF is making the qualitative temperature measurements quantitative, so simultaneous LIGS measurements have been used for in situ calibration.