A model-based control of BMEP (Brake Mean Effective Pressure) and NOx emissions has been developed and assessed for a Euro VI 3.0L diesel engine for heavy-duty applications. The control is based on a zero-dimensional real-time combustion model, which is capable of simulating the HRR (heat release rate), in-cylinder pressure, brake torque, exhaust gas temperatures, NOx and soot engine-out levels. The real-time combustion model has been realized by integrating and improving previously developed simulation tools. The chemical energy release has been simulated using the accumulated fuel mass approach. The in-cylinder pressure was estimated on the basis of a single-zone heat release model, using the net energy release as input. The latter quantity was obtained starting from the simulated chemical energy release, and evaluating the heat transfer of the charge with the walls. NOx and soot emissions were simulated on the basis of a semi-empirical correlation that takes into account the in-cylinder burned gas temperature, which is in turn estimated using a three-zone thermodynamic model. A new discretization scheme has been developed for the model equations, in order to reduce the accuracy loss when the computational step is increased. This has allowed the required computational time to be reduced to a great extent. The real-time combustion model has been first calibrated and assessed at both steady-state and transient conditions over a WHTC, on the basis of experimental data acquired at the highly dynamic test bench of ICEAL-PT (Internal Combustion Engines Advanced Laboratory – Politecnico di Torino), in the frame of a research activity in collaboration with FPT Industrial. The model has then been applied to realize a model-based control of BMEP and NOx emissions. In particular, the control provides the injected quantity and timing of the main pulse, for given targets of BMEP and NOx engine-out emissions. Soot emissions are also predicted by the control in real-time, and a correction in injection pressure is adopted if soot exceeds a given threshold. Finally, the developed control has been tested on a rapid prototyping device (ETAS ES910) through HiL (Hardware-in-the-Loop) techniques, and demonstrated to have real-time capability.