Numerous studies have demonstrated that exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can attenuate knock propensity in spark ignition (SI) engines at naturally aspirated or lightly boosted conditions . In this study, we investigate the role of cooled EGR under higher load conditions with multiple fuel compositions, where highly retarded combustion phasing typical of modern SI engines was used. It was found that under these conditions, EGR attenuation of knock is greatly reduced, where EGR doesn’t allow significant combustion phasing advance as it does under lighter load conditions. Detailed combustion analysis shows that when EGR is added, the polytropic coefficient increases causing the compressive pressure and temperature to increase. At sufficiently highly boosted conditions, the increase in polytropic coefficient and additional trapped mass from EGR can sufficiently reduce fuel ignition delay to overcome knock attenuation effects. Kinetic modeling demonstrates that the effectiveness of EGR to mitigate knock is highly dependent on the pressure-temperature condition. Experiments at 2000 rpm have confirmed reduced fuel ignition delay under highly boosted conditions relevant to modern downsized boosted SI engines, where in-cylinder pressure is higher and the temperature is cooler. At these conditions, charge reactivity increases compared to naturally aspirated conditions, and attenuation of knock by EGR is reduced.