Beatrice, C., Belgiorno, G., Di Blasio, G., Mancaruso, E. et al., "Analysis of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector Performance in Optical and Metal Research Engines," SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0073, 2017.
Technologies for direct injection of fuel in compression ignition engines are in continuous development. One of the most investigated components of this system is the injector; in particular, main attention is given to the nozzle characteristics as hole diameter, number, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to increase the average fuel velocity and to promote the atomization process. On the other hand, the number of holes must increase to keep the desired mass flow rate. On this basis, a new logic has been applied for the development of the next generation of injectors. The tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate that moves vertically. The plate motion allows to obtain an annulus area for the delivery of the fuel on 360 degrees; while the plate lift permits to vary the atomization level of the spray. The experimental activities have been performed on a single-cylinder metal engine in order to evaluate the new injector concept functionality in typical engine working conditions. Then a deeper investigation of injector the characteristics has been performed in an optical single-cylinder diesel engine via high speed digital imaging in order to catch information on its operation. The results have shown a good response of the injector fuel delivery control but penalties in terms of emissions and efficiency compared to multihole nozzles. Images of the injection process showed that the fuel assumed an asymmetric shape at the exit of the injector affecting the mixing quality and, then, the combustion efficiency.