Waqas, M., Atef, N., Singh, E., MASURIER, J. et al., "Blending Behavior of Ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A Gasoline in HCCI Combustion Mmode," SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0082, 2017.
The blending of ethanol with PRF (Primary reference fuel) 84 was investigated and compared with FACE (Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines) A gasoline surrogate which has a RON of 83.9. Previously, experiments were performed at four HCCI conditions but the chemical effect responsible for the non-linear blending behavior of ethanol with PRF 84 and FACE A was not understood. Hence, in this study the experimental measurements were simulated using zero-dimensional HCCI engine model with detailed chemistry in CHEMKIN PRO. Ethanol was used as an octane booster for the above two base fuels in volume concentration of 0%, 2%, 5% and 10%.The geometrical data and the intake valve closure conditions were used to match the simulated combustion phasing with the experiments. Low temperature heat release (LTHR) was detected by performing heat release analysis. LTHR formation depended on the base fuel type and the engine operating conditions suggesting that the base fuel composition has an important role in the formation of LTHR. The effect of ethanol on LTHR was explained by low temperature chemistry reactions and OH/HO2 evolution. A strong correlation of low temperature oxidation reactions of base fuels with ethanol was found to be responsible for the observed blending effects.