Morgan, R., Heikal, M., and Pike-Wilson, E., "A Late Injection Combustion Strategy Using a Novel Ramped Combustion System," SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0090, 2017.
Traffic related NOx and particle emission remain a significant concern particularly in the urban environment. Electrification offers a medium to long term solution, but there remains a need to significantly reduce internal combustion engine emissions in the short and medium term, and potentially in the long term for long range inter city transportation. Late injection low temperature combustion (LTC) has the potential to achieve ultra-low emissions levels in a compression ignition engine by increasing the lean pre-mixed burn fraction. However, significant quantities of diluent are normally required to achieve the required delay in ignition and pre-mixing to achieve LTC. This results in high boost requirements, increased pumping work and the complexity of the air handling system and potentially adversely impacting fuel economy. In this paper, results from a single cylinder light duty research engine are presented using a novel ramped combustion chamber focused at mid to high engine loads. The ramped combustion chamber improves mixing and enables more retarded injection timings than those possible on conventional bowl designs. This combustion strategy has enabled LTC conditions to be achieved at lower dilution rates, typically 20-30% at loads up to 15bar IMEP. CFD analysis of the air-fuel interaction indicates the ramped bowl effectively deflects fuel away from the squish region enabling very late injection timings. One dimensional analysis of the engine system was used to investigate the potential of late exhaust valve opening in improving work recovery, resulting in improved fuel consumption over the baseline LTC valve timings.