Low RON Gasoline Calibration on a Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine to Fulfill Euro 6d Regulation

Paper #:
  • 2017-24-0091

  • 2017-09-04
Reduce the CO2 footprint, limit the pollutant emissions and rebalance the ongoing shift demand toward middle-distillate fuels are major concerns for vehicle manufacturers and oil refiners. In this context, gasoline-like fuels have been recently identified as good candidate. Strait run naphtha, a refinery stream directly derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, allows to reduce both NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression-ignition engines. CO2 benefits are also expected thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel. In previous studies, wide ranges of Cetane Number naphtha fuels have been evaluated and CN 35 naphtha fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern, nozzle design and air-path technology have been performed on a light-duty single cylinder compression-ignition engine. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of a recalibrated light-duty multi-cylinder compression-ignition engine running with CN35 naphtha fuel with the just necessary engine and after-treatment hardware modification. The implementation of a specific global Design of Experiment (DoE) methodology developed by IFPEN was applied in steady-state conditions to calibrate the engine. The behavior of an after-treatment exhaust line (ATS) with DOC, DPF and SCR systems, was evaluated by 0D modelization. To be compliant with Euro 6d regulation, several DoEs considering the coolant temperature were performed to fully cover the WLTC cycle range and models representing the engine behavior in a large part of the engine map were then created. Euro 6 regulation was met with a reduction of almost 7% of CO2 on WLTC, using a Euro 6 Diesel like ATS design. Noise levels were comparable to a Euro 5 Diesel reference engine. Different ATS efficiencies were also assessed with a significant impact on the CO2 potential. Engine calibration and after-treatment being, de facto, strongly linked.
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