Outward-Opening Hollow-Cone Spray Characterization by Experimental and Numerical Approach in Evaporative and Non-Evaporative Conditions

Paper #:
  • 2017-24-0108

  • 2017-09-04
The combustion efficiency in modern diesel engines strictly depends on the quality of the air-fuel mixing and, in turn, the quality of spray atomization process. The air-fuel mixing is strongly influenced by the injection pressure, the geometry of the nozzle and the hydraulic characteristics of the injector. In this context, outward-opening piezoelectric injectors are gaining popularity as a high efficient device because of its precise control of the fuel injected. In the present paper, a new concept of open nozzle spray was investigated being a possible application for diesel engines. The study concerns an experimental and numerical characterization of a spray generated through a prototype high-pressure hollow-cone nozzle (HCN). The experimental description of the injection process was carried out under evaporative and non-evaporative conditions injecting the fuel in a constant-volume combustion vessel controlled in pressure and temperature in order to measure the spatial and temporal fuel pattern at engine-like gas densities. OpenFOAM libraries in the lib-ICE version of the numerical code were employed for simulating the dynamic of the spray after a first validation phase based on the experimental data. The evolution of the spray was simulated through the classical models for high-pressure spray simulation. The Discrete Droplet Model (DDM), based on a Lagrangian approach, was used to describe the liquid phase while for the vapor phase an Eulerian description was adopted. The spray droplets were described by stochastic particles that are usually referred to as parcels. Results show a typical spray structure of the outward-opening nozzle with the overall fluid-dynamic arrangement having a good fuel distribution along the hollow-cone geometry and showing a reduced spatial penetration. The first feature appears very interesting in the view of an application to premixed controlled combustion concepts using dedicated piston geometries.
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