Montanaro, A., Migliaccio, M., Allocca, L., Beatrice, C. et al., "Outward-Opening Hollow-Cone Spray Characterization by Experimental and Numerical Approach in Evaporative and Non-Evaporative Conditions," SAE Technical Paper 2017-24-0108, 2017.
In the present paper, a new concept of open nozzle spray was investigated as possible application for compression ignition engines. The study concerns an experimental and numerical characterization of a spray generated through a prototype high-pressure hollow-cone nozzle (HCN).The experimental description of the injection process was carried out under evaporative and non-evaporative conditions injecting the fuel in a constant-volume combustion vessel controlled in pressure and temperature in order to measure the spatial and temporal fuel pattern at engine-like gas densities. OpenFOAM libraries in the lib-ICE version of the numerical code were employed for simulating the spray dynamics after a first validation phase based on the experimental data.Results show a typical spray structure of the outward-opening nozzle with the overall fluid-dynamic arrangement having a good fuel distribution along the hollow-cone geometry but showing a reduced spatial penetration. The first feature appears very interesting in view of an application to premixed controlled combustion concepts using dedicated piston geometries.