Svensson, E., Yin, L., Tunestal, P., Thern, M. et al., "Evaluation of Different Turbocharger Configurations for a Heavy-Duty Partially Premixed Combustion Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 10(5):2575-2595, 2017.
The engine concept partially premixed combustion (PPC) has proved higher gross indicated efficiency compared to conventional diesel combustion engines. The relatively simple implementation of the concept is an advantage, however, high gas exchange losses has made its use challenging in multi-cylinder heavy duty engines. With high rates of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to dilute the charge and hence limit the combustion rate, the resulting exhaust temperatures are low. The selected boost system must therefore be efficient which could lead to large, complex and costly solutions.In the presented work experiments and modelling were combined to evaluate different turbocharger configurations for the PPC concept. Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder engine. The engine was modified to incorporate long route EGR and a single-stage turbocharger, however, with compressed air from the building being optionally supplied to the compressor. Experimental combustion heat release rates and boundary conditions were used to validate a simulation model. This model was then used to compare three different turbochargers: two single-stage turbochargers and one two-stage. The whole speed and load range was covered in the simulations to determine the engine performance. The influence of high EGR rates as well as the effect of charge air and EGR cooler gas outlet temperatures were also investigated.The simulation results showed that the two-stage turbocharger was able to give the highest load over the whole speed range with a brake mean effective pressure of 25.6 bar, whereas the two single-stage turbochargers reached 22.2 and 23.1 bar respectively. The average brake efficiency was 39.3, 39.7 and 40.2 %. It was found that decreasing the inlet temperature is critical for obtaining high loads and system efficiencies. Finally, it was shown that the optimal amount of EGR was dependent on the turbocharger efficiency and cooler temperatures.