Gupta, M., Rafat, Y., and Alam, M., "Well to Wheel Cum Tailpipe Emission Analysis: ICE vs xEV," SAE Technical Paper 2017-26-0107, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-26-0107.
Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as zero emission vehicles because of no exhaust emissions (tailpipe emission). But electric power generation contributes in the well to wheel emissions. Hence, Electric vehicle cannot be regarded as completely pollution free. In Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles, the pollution is from both the tailpipe (exhaust pipe) and from the well to wheel (extraction of the gasoline in this case). Tailpipe emissions are taken in compliance with Bharat stage emission standards. Standard emissions of CO2, NOx, PM and CH from refineries, during extraction of fuel (gasoline/diesel), are considered for well to wheel emissions. In this work a comparative study of tailpipe and well to wheel emissions from EVs and ICE vehicles is carried out. Three vehicle categories namely; Heavy Duty Vehicles, Passenger cars and 2 wheelers and four major pollutants, namely; CO2, NOx, PM and CH (hydrocarbons) are taken into consideration. It has been found out that there has been continuous rise in emissions in terms of tonnes of CO2 eq/MWh up to the year 2012-13, but it became constant for following years. This was mainly due to increase in renewable energy sources for electricity generation. After calculating the emissions/km for different vehicle categories it has been concluded that over all emissions from ICE vehicles are still much more as compared to their counter parts in EVs.