Lacarriere, A., Seguelong, T., Spivey, D., and DAS, A., "The Fuel-Borne Catalyst Approach: A Cost-Effective and Robust Solution to Address the Requirements of BS-VI for Diesel Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 2017-26-0127, 2017, doi:10.4271/2017-26-0127.
India is moving to Bharat Stage VI (BS-VI) from 2019 significantly lowering particulate mass (PM) , particle number (PN) and Nitrogen Oxides NOx emissions limits, as well as Carbon Dioxide CO2. BSVI’s particulate limits will require the use of diesel particulate filters (DPFs), which will need to operate properly under the driving conditions prevalent in India. Furthermore, NOx and CO2 emissions control will include advanced combustion modes with advanced fuel injectiontechnologies based on high pressure fuel injection and smaller injector holes, in combination with active NOx reduction measures. These advanced technologies will increase sensitivity to fuel quality, so will require tighter control of sulfur content, water contamination, fuel stability, lubricity and corrosion. These are real challenges for the robustness and durability of strategies developed for BS-VI and beyond.To address such fuel quality and emissions issues, a strategy using on-board fuel additives is a cost-effective option, especially as measured under real world driving conditions. The approach is to meter multifunctional additive into the fuel during vehicle operation. The Fuel-Borne Catalyst (FBC) component effectively enhances DPF function, improving soot loading and combustion under almost all driving conditions, and importantly with low energy demand. Fuel quality improver components provide, on the vehicle, improved reliability and durability of the fuel injection equipment, under vehicle manufacturer control.Eolys PowerFlex® FBC technology enables overall powertrain cost reduction, through lower usage of precious metal and lower cost NOx reduction. Improved fuel efficiency is also enabled. All this can be achieved with relatively limited investments to advance from BS-4 to BS-VI, including Real Driving Emissions RDE measurements and beyond.