The decision to leapfrog from the Bharat Stage (BS) IV emission standards directly to the BS VI standards not only effects passenger and commercial vehicles but also India’s by far largest vehicle class, with regards to sales and production, the two-wheelers. The BS VI norm will not only tighten the emission standards, but it will also increase the required emission mileage level and upgrade the On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, also by introducing In-Use Monitor Performance Ratio (IUMPR) standards. While OBD was already introduced for passenger and commercial vehicles with BS IV in 2010, OBD will be then newly introduced for two-wheelers. The OBD system monitors the vehicle’s in-use emission performance, informs the driver via the malfunction indication light (MIL) on the dashboard in case of an emission relevant failure, standardises the diagnostic code handling and regulates a standardised access to the electronic control units (ECUs) for maintenance and inspection purposes. To comply with the proposed BS VI standards, the two-wheelers must undergo profound modifications and updates on the hardware and the software side. This paper highlights the main proposed regulation changes for two-wheelers and discusses the related challenges associated with the OBD Stage II system.