Water Recovery from Gasoline Engine Exhaust for Water Injection

Paper #:
  • 2018-01-0369

Published:
  • 2018-04-03
Abstract:
Water Injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of Exhaust Water Recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Using water injection, fuel enrichment was reduced at a full load condition (5000rpm/18.1bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine, yielding a 13% fuel economy improvement. Engine testing at a high load (3000rpm/14.0bar BMEP) condition showed that WI had a negligible effect on three-way catalyst (TWC) conversion efficiency under stoichiometric conditions. Water recovery testing was conducted at high load, as well as part load (2080rpm/6.8bar BMEP) conditions, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. EWR was shown to be effective both post exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and post charge air cooler (CAC). Two different types of water separation designs were tested: a cyclone separator (CS) based on thermodynamic condensation and a membrane separator (MEM) based on capillary condensation. The CS showed better performance than the MEM separator tested. With the CS, up to ~100% condensate separation efficiency was achieved with very low pressure drop (~1kPa). All the condensate samples collected with low sulfur fuel showed near neutral pH levels (6.5-8.5). From the appearance of the condensate samples, MEM-collected water had better quality than the CS-collected water. Water collected after the CAC showed better quality and lower pH than that collected downstream of the EGR cooler. Water recovered from post-TWC EGR showed better quality and higher pH than that collected from pre-TWC EGR. Water injection and collection simulations on three different drive cycles using GT-Suite showed that more water could be collected than was required for injection on FTP and WLTP drive cycles, while only 40~70% of required water for injection could be collected on the US06 cycle.
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