Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this paper, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on the acceleration field theory. Firstly, the acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built on the analysis of the braking and driving process, and acceleration was taken as the indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision model was established with the acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, speed planning and road adhesion condition were introduced in the lane-changing decision model to make it more flexible. Afterwards, the polynomial trajectory planning method was matched up with this lane-changing decision-making method. Finally, simulations based on Matlab/Simulink were conducted to verify the method presented in this manuscript. As the simulation results show, adopting the lane-changing decision-making method based on acceleration field, the lane-changing measurements such as the start position, the span and the driving speed can be optimized with driver’s habits involved. At the same time, the vehicle safety and adaptability to different road adhesion conditions can be well ensured.