Feasibility Study of Bi-directional Wireless Charging for Vehicle-to-Grid

Paper #:
  • 2018-01-0669

Published:
  • 2018-04-03
Abstract:
In an effort to address environmental concerns and enhance energy security, automakers have been developing electrified products such as plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) for the past several years, and they are gaining momentum. Honda strives to electrify two-thirds of global automobile unit sales by 2030. Simultaneously, renewable sources of energy have been playing an increasing role in the nation’s electricity grid. Due to the intermittent nature of many renewable sources, such as wind and solar power, it is becoming more difficult to maintain a balance between renewable energy availability and coincident peak demand. This challenge is commonly called the “duck curve,” due to the temporal imbalance between peak demand and peak renewable energy production. One way to prevent curtailment of the amount of electricity generated by renewable resources is to store the “excess” electricity, and then feed it back into the grid during the peak demand periods. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology provides a means to accomplish this task. V2G technology enables two-way power flow between the grid and the high-power, high-capacity propulsion batteries in an electrified vehicle. This technology can therefore contribute to stabilizing the balance between supply and demand on the power grid. Honda has been conducting an experimental demonstration of V2G at the University of Delaware and at UC San Diego since November 2014, using a modified Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid. This vehicle has been fitted with a bi-directional on-board AC/DC and DC/AC converter, which enables V2G functionality. In addition, the authors have performed an architectural design and a modeling and simulation study for a bi-directional wireless charging system for V2G applications. This research activity aims to adapt an existing SAE J2954 compatible uni-directional system design to enable bi-directional wireless power transfer with minimum impact to system cost, while maintaining full compatibility with the requirements of SAE J2954. This paper discusses the predicted system performance, including output power and efficiency. Bi-directional wireless charging technology can significantly improve usability because the physical connection between the vehicle and grid has been eliminated. This can facilitate the large-scale introduction of V2G technology into the market. In an effort to address environmental concerns and enhance energy security, automakers have been developing electrified products such as plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) for the past several years, and they are gaining momentum. Honda strives to electrify two-thirds of global automobile unit sales by 2030. Simultaneously, renewable sources of energy have been playing an increasing role in the nation’s electricity grid. Due to the intermittent nature of many renewable sources, such as wind and solar power, it is becoming more difficult to maintain a balance between renewable energy availability and coincident peak demand. This challenge is commonly called the “duck curve,” due to the temporal imbalance between peak demand and peak renewable energy production. One way to prevent curtailment of the amount of electricity generated by renewable resources is to store the “excess” electricity, and then feed it back into the grid during the peak demand periods. Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology provides a means to accomplish this task. V2G technology enables two-way power flow between the grid and the high-power, high-capacity propulsion batteries in an electrified vehicle. This technology can therefore contribute to stabilizing the balance between supply and demand on the power grid. Honda has been conducting an experimental demonstration of V2G at the University of Delaware and at UC San Diego since November 2014, using a modified Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid. This vehicle has been fitted with a bi-directional on-board AC/DC and DC/AC converter, which enables V2G functionality. In addition, the authors have performed an architectural design and a modeling and simulation study for a bi-directional wireless charging system for V2G applications. This research activity aims to adapt an existing SAE J2954 compatible uni-directional system design to enable bi-directional wireless power transfer with minimum impact to system cost, while maintaining full compatibility with the requirements of SAE J2954. This paper discusses the predicted system performance, including output power and efficiency. Bi-directional wireless charging technology can significantly improve usability because the physical connection between the vehicle and grid has been eliminated. This can facilitate the large-scale introduction of V2G technology into the market.
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