The Development of Low Temperature Three-Way Catalysts for Stoichiometric Gasoline Engines of the Future

Paper #:
  • 2018-01-0939

Published:
  • 2018-04-03
Abstract:
Stoichiometric gasoline engines of the future are expected to have improved fuel efficiency and therefore lower exhaust temperatures during low load operation relative to engines today. However, the increasing use of turbocharged down-sized engines will result in similar or even higher exhaust temperatures during high load operation. As a result, three-way catalysts (TWC) will be needed with significantly improved activity at lower temperatures while maintaining the thermal durability of current TWCs. As part of a DOE-funded collaboration between Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan, Ford is developing TWC formulations that consist of a monolayer of a metal oxide such as titania or zirconia coated onto an alumina support and post-impregnated with Pd or Rh. While the metal oxides have poor thermal durability by themselves, it has been discovered that they are remarkably stable as monolayers and are effective for promoting the activity of the PGM. When evaluated with the testing protocols for stoichiometric applications established by the USDRIVE Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) team, the Rh-containing monolayer catalysts provided significantly lower lightoff temperatures relative to a current production TWC formulation after rigorous 4-mode aging at 960 C max. This work has demonstrated significant progress towards the USDRIVE goal of 90% conversion of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150 C after high temperature aging.
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