Research on Injury Characteristics of Left Legs of Pedestrian and Cyclist in Vehicle Collision based on C-NCAP

Paper #:
  • 2018-01-1045

  • 2018-04-03
Lower extremities in traffic accidents are the most frequent body regions of injuries. During pedestrian-vehicle crashes, pedestrian’s lower extremities are subjected to the influence of combined shear and bending force, which can usually bring about ligament tear, fracture. According to the C-NCAP 2018 test protocol, the pedestrian protection test is defined as the vehicle from the right side of the human body impacting the right leg. The cruciate ligament elongation and the tibia bending of the right leg are taken into account for assessing the performance of lower extremities. However, the left leg injuries and deformation are not considered. The purpose of this study is to understand the kinematics response and injury characteristics of the left leg in pedestrian-vehicle and cyclist-vehicle crashes. Impact simulations are conducted by using the THUMS biomechanical dummy, where the test vehicle strikes the pedestrian of the standing and walking postures as well as the cyclist at the speed of 40 km/h. The tibia and femur stress, the knee stress, the knee ligament tension, and the rotational motions of the left leg are measured and analyzed. Meanwhile, a thorough compare of the injuries and motions between two legs is made. The results show that the motions and deformation of the left leg are similar to the right leg in the pedestrian walking posture. The knee bone of the left leg is firstly crashed by the right knee, and then the left-leg femur and tibia wrap around the front shape of the vehicle. The left leg’s injuries are slightly better than the right leg’s due to the cushioning of right leg. In the walking posture, where two legs are intersectional and poorly supported, the left-leg tibia stress and knee ligaments both reach failure condition. The cyclists have a relatively high center and the first collision position is usually at the lower part of the knee or the upper part of the tibia. The knee joint is impacted by the bicycle’s cross beam and the front edge of the hood, resulting in the fracture of the left-leg knee. In conclusion, the femur, knee, and tibia of the left human leg are severely damaged in the three scenarios. The results of this study are significant to devise a suitable approach for the assessment of the left-leg injuries of pedestrians and cyclists. And it is in favor of the perfection of the pedestrian protection protocol of the C-NCAP evaluation systems and the mandatory regulations
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