LOCKWOOD, E., "COOLING CAPACITY OF AUTOMOBILE RADIATORS," SAE Technical Paper 230012, 1923, doi:10.4271/230012.
Annual Meeting Paper - The heat-dissipating properties of three types of radiator core have been investigated at the Mason Laboratory, Yale University. These include the fin-and-tube, the ribbon and the air-tube groups, so classified according to the flow of the water and the air. The ratio of the cooling surface to the volume is shown to be nearly the same in the fin-and-tube and the air-tube cores, while that of the ribbon core is somewhat greater. A formula is derived for computing the heat-transfer coefficient, which is defined as the number of heat units per hour that will pass from one square foot of surface per degree of temperature-difference between the air and the water and is the key to radiator performance, as by it almost any desired information can be obtained. When the heat-transfer coefficients have been found for a sufficiently wide range of water and air-flows the cooling capacity of a radiator can be computed for any desired condition. In an appendix five fundamental and six derived formulas are given. These cover such topics as pump circulation, thermosyphon circulation, limiting depth of core required, final temperatures, weight of water-flow and the like. The results of applying the formulas to six cores that were selected as representative of the three main types are illustrated by a series of charts.