Rodgers, C., "Efficiency and Performance Characteristics of Radial Turbines," SAE Technical Paper 660754, 1966, doi:10.4271/660754.
Results are presented of a study directed toward providing a method of estimating radial turbine efficiency levels and performance characteristics, based upon summation of the individual component losses and applicable energy relationships. The magnitudes and divisions of the component losses have been developed to closely coincide with actual turbine test data obtained at the author's company, and have been integrated into a method of obtaining the complete turbine characteristic once the turbine geometry and operating conditions are prescribed. Because of the lack of radial cascade data, the use of a so-called one-dimensionalflow theory is employed, supported by theoretical cascade analysis and adjusted by empirical means to satisfy the strong three-dimensional flow conditions that can exist in a radial turbine, particularly at off-design conditions. The results of the study include a comparison between actual test and computed performance of an experimental low specific speed radial turbine, which shows acceptable correlation, thus verifying the estimation procedure.