Stebar, R. and Parks, F., "Emission Control with Lean Operation Using Hydrogen-Supplemented Fuel," SAE Technical Paper 740187, 1974, doi:10.4271/740187.
Hydrogen-supplemented fuel was investigated as a means of extending lean operating limits of gasoline engines for control of NOx. Single-cylinder engine tests with small additions of hydrogen to the fuel resulted in very low NOx and CO emissions for hydrogen-isooctane mixtures leaner than 0.55 equivalence ratio. Significant thermal efficiency improvements resulted from the extension beyond isooctane lean limit operation. However, HC emissions increased markedly at these lean conditions.A passenger car was modified to operate at 0.55-0.65 equivalence ratio with supplemental hydrogen. Vehicle emissions, as established by the 1975 Federal Exhaust Emissions Test, demonstrated the same trends as the single-cylinder engine tests.The success of the hydrogen-supplemented fuel approach will ultimately hinge on the development of both a means of controlling hydrocarbon emissions and a suitable hydrogen source on board the vehicle. Reported efforts to develop a satisfactory onboard hydrogen generator (gasoline reformer) appear restricted by fuel economy considerations.