Stock, D. and Bauder, R., "The New Audi 5-Cylinder Turbo Diesel Engine: The First Passenger Car Diesel Engine with Second Generation Direct Injection," SAE Technical Paper 900648, 1990, doi:10.4271/900648.
At the 53rd IAA in Frankfurt Audi introduced the first passenger car turbo diesel engine with second generation direct injection. Installed in the Audi 100 this 2.5-liter engine gives impressive consumption and performance figures. Emission levels meet, or in some cases are considerably below, the statutory requirements of the EC Standard 88/436/EEC. The vehicle has excellent refinement and low noise levels.The claim that the engine is the first passenger car turbo diesel with second generation direct injection, is based on the following features some of which are completely unique: 5-hole-injectors for optimised injection and mixture preparation for minimum consumption, emissions and noise high pressure injection with pre-injection by dual spring injectors for “soft” combustion and low noise engine management with an electronically controlled distributor pump electronic throttle pedal to improve driveability electronically controlled engine mounts with variable damping characteristics for reduced vibration transmission into the passenger compartment fully enclosed engine compartment, with automatically operated blind for the intercooler to reduce outward noise radiation. The 5-cylinder turbo diesel engine with intercooler has a capacity of 2460 ccm. Torque in excess of 240 Nm is available over a wide speed range from 1800 rpm to 3300 rpm. Maximum torque delivery is 265 Nm at only 2250 rpm. The minimum specific consumption over the complete operating range was 198 g/kWh. Minimum full load consumption is 205 g/kWh. Maximum mean effective pressure is 13.5 bar at 2250 rpm.The engine is supplied in the Audi 100 automobile with a 5-speed-manual gearbox. FUEL CONSUMPTION FIGURESEEC urban cycle:7.2 1/100 km = 2.7 mpgConstant speed 90 km/h:4.2 1/100 km = 56.0 mpgConstant speed 120 km/h:5.8 1/100 km = 40.6 mpgAverage of above:5.7 1/100 km = 41.3 mpgFTP Consumption:7.1 1/100 km = 33.1 mpg