Nightingale, R., Doherty, B., Myers, B., McElhaney, J. et al., "The Influence of End Condition on Human Cervical Spine Injury Mechanisms," SAE Technical Paper 912915, 1991, doi:10.4271/912915.
The passive combined flexion and axial loading responses of the unembalmed human cervical spine were measured in a dynamic test environment. The influence of end condition (the degree of constraint imposed on the head by the contact surface) was varied to determine its effect on observed column stiffness and on failure modes of the cervical spine. Multi-axis load cells were used to completely describe the forces and moments developed in the specimen. Twenty three specimens were studied. The Hybrid III neckform performance was assessed to determine its suitability as a mechanical simulator of the neck during head impact. Changes in end condition produced significant changes in axial stiffness in both the Hybrid III neckform and the cadaver neck. The mode of injury also varied as a function of end condition in a repeatable fashion. Separation of injuries based upon imposed end condition identified groups with significantly different axial load to failure. These results also suggest that the risk of cervical injury may be strongly dependent on the degree of head constraint imposed by the contact surface, and that injury environments should be designed to minimize this constraint.