The effects of the phosphorus and sulfated ash contents of engine oils on the deactivation of monolithic three-way catalysts and oxygen sensors were studied. The effect of temperature was evaluated as well. The catalysts and oxygen sensors were poisoned in a 100-hour engine bench test. As a result, it was learned that engine oils with higher phosphorus contents showed a higher concentration of phosphorus on the catalyst surfaces, and the ability of the catalysts to convert carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen decreased. However, the phosphorus content was not observed to have any effect on hydrocarbons. The sulfated ash reduced the phosphorus concentration on the catalyst surface, but it also had a negative effect on the catalytic activity. The deactivation of the catalysts was much more noticeable at 800°C than at 720°C. In the tests at 720°C and 800°C, no deactivation of the oxygen sensors was observed, regardless of the composition of the engine oil. These results confirm that it is desirable to have low phosphorus and sulfated ash contents in engine oil in order to inhibit catalyst deactivation and to extend the life of catalysts.