Wicks, F., "Potential Benefits from Applying Electric Vehicle Technology to Engine Driven Vehicles," SAE Technical Paper 929270, 1992, doi:10.4271/929270.
During the last two years, new clean air legislation has stimulated much activity directed toward the development of electric vehicles with some impressive results in terms of range and performance. While these electric vehicles can offer significant benefits, there may be even more benefit from applying some of this electric vehicle technology toward a more fuel efficient and lower emission engine driven vehicle. This concept is demonstrated by considering the General Motors Impact electric vehicle which claims a range of 130 miles and zero to 60 mph acceleration in eight seconds. This electric vehicle range and performance is achieved largely by a design that requires very low power, and thus if the electric drive were replaced with a nominally efficient engine and drive, the vehicle would achieve more than 100 miles per gallon. It would also yield 75% reductions in fuel consumption and hydrocarbon (HC), Nitrogen Oxide (NOX) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emissions relative to a gasoline vehicle that meets the current United States Environmental Protection Agency Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency requirement of 27.5 mpg.