The objective of this paper is to review recent advances in active structural acoustic control and detail the advantages and limitations with respect to intelligent system design. The term intelligent system is used to describe a structure with both control actuators and error sensors either bonded to the surface or embedded within the structure for modifying the response under the direction of an adaptive control algorithm. The concept of an intelligent structure for vibration and structural acoustic control applications can be attributed primarily to recent advances in active material technology as well as increased speed in digital signal processors. Basic concepts in structural acoustics are reviewed in this work to familiarize the audience with the fundamental problem. Methods of modeling piezoelectric control actuators and error sensors for vibration and structural acoustic control applications are presented with a review of various design approaches. Alternative control approaches are discussed, targeting performance advantages and limitations with respect to the algorithms. Examples of recent applications are presented to convey the potential of this developing technology. Results from recent research efforts indicate that the basic elements of intelligent system design for active structural acoustic control are available for preliminary implementation on vehicles for land, sea, air and space.