Takada, Y., Matsuda, H., Notsu, I., Niimura, K. et al., "Development of a Heavy-Duty Turbocharged and Aftercooled CNG-Fueled Lean-Burn Engine - Conversion of a Naturally-Aspirated Diesel Engine into Otto-Type CNG Engine," SAE Technical Paper 932818, 1993, https://doi.org/10.4271/932818.
A heavy-duty, naturally aspirated diesel engine was converted into a turbocharged, aftercooled, compressed natural gas engine. Engine test results show that excess air ratio and ignition timing strongly affect NOx and THC emissions. Leaning the air-fuel mixture reduces NOx emission, but it increases THC emission and combustion becomes unstable above a certain excess air ratio. Retarding the ignition timing reduces both the NOx and THC emissions. Dual-plug ignition improves brake thermal efficiency. The NOx emission level can be reduced to meet the Japanese long-term emission regulation limit for heavy-duty gasoline engines with a sufficient safety margin by appropriately selecting the air-fuel ratio and ignition timing so as to keep the THC emission level below the regulation limit without using any after-treatment. The engine full torque characteristics were almost the same as the base engine throughout the engine speed range, while the maximum exhaust gas temperature was lower. The engine noise level was approximately 6.5 dBA lower than that of the base engine.