In order to study air flow distribution to individual cylinders of an SI engine at transient conditions, a new small-sized high-response air flow meter was investigated and developed to measure instantaneous air flow rates. The experiments were performed with changes in initial throttle opening, throttle movement angle and period, and crank-angle at the opening of the throttle valve and related engine speeds. Air flow rates for individual cylinders of a four cylinder engine were measured during acceleration.The relative rising rate was used for estimation of air distribution values, namely, the ratio of the initial amount of increased air flow rate of to the air flow rate for each cylinder. Air flow begins to increase from the second induction stroke from throttle opening. The variations of crank-angle at throttle opening influences the rate of increase. The effect of transient conditions on air flow rate distribution was researched. The fluctuation relationship of throttle opening and air flow rate was clarified for transient behavior. The results of this paper are useful for determining the supply of fuel to accomplish precise air/fuel control and to decrease the engine fuel consumption.