Air-entrainment characteristics of non-evaporating sprays and flames were measured by means of high-speed photography including ordinary shadowgraphy of sprays, back diffused light illumination photography and laser shadow photography of flames. Effects of injection pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on air-entrainment characteristics were investigated parametrically. The amount of air entrained into a flame was calculated by a two-zone thermodynamic model with data obtained from the photographs and the pressure measurement in the combustion chamber. The air-entrainment characteristics of flames were compared with those of the corresponding sprays. It showed that immediately after the start of ignition, the air entrainment into a flame increased more rapidly as compared with the corresponding spray and then, with the development of diffusion combustion, the air entrainment gradually approached that of the spray.