Smoke emission from single-cylinder DI and IDI diesel engines was shown to strongly depend on oxygen content in fuel regardless of oxygenate molecular structure. Thus, with cetane improver and oxygenate used in combination in a proportion determined from blending properties and potential cost for modern heavy-duty DI diesel engines were assessed. The combined use of nitrate type cetane improver with glycol ether type oxygenate reduced particulate, HC, and CO emission but not that of NOx. Particulate reduction depended on oxygenate content. Oxygenate at less than 5% with cetane improver seldom worsened volume-based fuel economy compared with the base hydrocarbon fuel.