Lyon, K., Philipp, M., and Grommes, E., "Traction Control for a Formula 1 Race Car: Conceptual Design, Algorithm Development, and Calibration Methodology," SAE Technical Paper 942475, 1994, doi:10.4271/942475.
A Traction Control (TC) system was developed for a Formula 1 racing car using PID closed-loop feedback control of available engine power using a sophisticated fuel cutoff algorithm. Slip events were identified from 4 wheel speed data as well as driver cockpit-selectable input. This paper deals with both theoretical system design and algorithm development during the 1993 F1 season. In addition, development of a unique, G. P. start-only feature is discussed.Results indicate the existence of a minimum slip level, below which vehicle performance is impaired even though near-perfect slip reduction is achieved. Mathematical representation of the quantity of slip as a velocity delta is also important to ensure uniform system response in the face of changing track surface conditions.