New automobile inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs will soon be nationally implemented. However, studies of past I/M programs indicate they performed poorly. Thus, some suggest that the new requirements be offset or replaced by other efforts to reduce motor vehicle emissions.The EPA maintains that the I/M programs being implemented in 1995 will be effective. In a few years the actual results, assuming parties without vested interests obtain them, can help show what areas should be the main focus to efficiently and effectively reduce auto air pollution. Stronger or continued I/M programs, more reliance on alternative vehicles, or other traffic reduction approaches will probably be the main paths of action to choose from. If history is repeated, continuing I/M programs will not be the main choice.