Positive displacement flowmeters can be used to simply and accurately calibrate common flow transducers such as axial turbine and target flowmeters. Two means of utilizing positive displacement devices were studied for use as a laboratory flowmeter calibration. The first method employed a fixed displacement axial piston motor. This proved unsatisfactory due to the difficulty in quantifying flow losses. The second method used a large hydraulic cylinder. An optical encoder measured the position of the cylinder rod, permitting a direct calculation of the flow through the in-line flowmeter being calibrated. Because cylinder leakage is virtually zero at low pressure, flow can be readily calculated knowing the effective cylinder diameter and piston velocity. The method described in this paper permits flow rates to be measured with an accuracy of ±0.1% of the volumetric flow rate. This paper discusses details of the design of the flowmeter and calibration method.