The proposed International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) GF-2 specification requires Passenger Car Motor Oils to provide enhanced fuel economy in a modern low friction engine (Sequence VIA). This paper details fundamental studies of lubricant effects on fuel economy as measured by this low friction engine. Several conventional friction modifiers were tested with surprising results. One ester friction modifier, Ester B, which provides excellent fuel economy improvement in the Sequence VI, was found to be detrimental to the Sequence VIA. A second ester friction modifier, Ester A, performed as expected. Additionally, two molybdenum compounds, which are reported to provide excellent fuel economy in the Sequence VI, showed no fuel economy benefit in the Sequence VIA. Subsequent measurement of fuel economy via the EPA FTP 75 test cycle, has shown the molybdenum compounds to enhance fuel economy and Ester B, the poor ester friction modifier (as measured by the Sequence VIA), to provide the largest fuel economy enhancement.