Emissions with E85 and Gasolines in Flexible/Variable Fuel Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

Paper #:
  • 952508

Published:
  • 1995-10-01
Citation:
Benson, J., Koehl, W., Burns, V., Hochhauser, A. et al., "Emissions with E85 and Gasolines in Flexible/Variable Fuel Vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program," SAE Technical Paper 952508, 1995, https://doi.org/10.4271/952508.
Pages:
20
Abstract:
Exhaust and evaporative emissions from three flexible/variable fuel vehicles (FFV/VFV) were measured as the vehicles operated on E85 fuel (a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) or on gasoline. One vehicle was a production vehicle designed for ethanol fuels and sold in 1992-93 and the other two vehicles were prototypes which were recalibrated 1992 model year methanol FFV's. The gasolines tested were Industry Average Fuel A and a reformulated gasoline Fuel C2 that met California 1996 regulatory requirements. The gasoline component of Fuel E85 was based on the reformulated gasoline.The major findings from this three-vehicle program were that E85 reduced NOx 49% compared to Fuel A and 37% compared to Fuel C2, but increased total toxics 108% (5 mg/mi) and 255% (20 mg/mi), respectively, primarily by increasing acetaldehyde. The NOx effect was significant for both engine-out and tailpipe emissions. Effects on OMHCE, CO, and reactivity-weighted exhaust emissions were not significant, nor were the effects on hot-soak evaporative emissions and reactivity.
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